High rise Building Concept For Future
High-rise buildings are the symbol of the economic prowess of a city and country. Major cities attract businesses, create opportunities, and attract swarms of migrant workers. The whole cycle of growth and prosperity is driven by rapid urbanization in the form of high-rises and other infrastructures. In this blog, we’ll discuss the high-rise building concept and how it is evolving.
How do we Define High-Rise Buildings?
High-rise buildings are tall structures of residential apartments or commercial offices. Their height is a defined variable depending on the jurisdiction. They are used for a variety of purposes, such as apartments, office buildings, or a combination of both; hotels, and shops.
Residential high-rise structures are also known as Tower Blocks, MDUs (Multi-dwelling units), or Skyscrapers. A skyscraper is a tall high-rise building that can be both residential or office complexes, or a combination of both.
Although a skyscraper is commonly defined as a building with forty or more floors and a height of more than 150 m (490 ft), there is no visible difference between a tower block and a skyscraper.
High-rise building foundations must be robust enough to withstand very large gravity loads. So, they are often composed of sunk concrete piers, piles, or caissons. Because high-rise buildings endure the lateral stresses imposed by winds and potential earthquakes, proper construction procedures are critical.
Due to their great heights and huge occupant populations, high-rise buildings demand the use of mechanical vertical transit systems, such as lifts, as well as the careful provision of life-safety measures. Fire safety regulations should be strictly enforced, and an appropriate exit should be provided in the event of a fire, power outage, or other mishap.
The Trends for Futuristic Design of High-Rise Buildings
Previously, the primary goal of high-rise building development was focused on generating profit by creating many homes or offices utilizing a relatively smaller area of land. But then, the negative sides of erecting high-rises started being revealed. In the last few decades, new regulations on high-rise buildings have been legislated. Local corporations/municipalities now have far higher expectations of high-rise construction.
They want these structures to play an important role in both the economy and the environment. High-rise buildings were previously recognised for their high per-unit cost, large use of energy and resources, and considerable waste output. Municipal authorities’ current policies emphasize more on the eco-friendliness of building projects and the use of cutting-edge technologies for compliance.
So, there is no wonder that the trend for new high-rise building design is towards achieving zero emission, which is in line with LEED certification. The LEED certification at the Platinum level defines the highest green building standard in the world. Only very few high-rises in the world have been awarded this certificate.
Designing bioclimatic skyscrapers is currently among the pro-ecological high-rise building trends, in which natural plants and shrubs are used in the public terraces or multi-level atriums to increase the comfort level of the users.
Complex Geometrical Forms is the New Design Trend
High-rise buildings have traditionally been designed as rectangular blocks with glass facades. Although functional and beautiful, these structures have a fairly monotonous appearance. Modern architecture is attempting to introduce new high-rise building concepts.
A new trend has emerged to erect stunning tall buildings in a variety of geometric forms. This has almost raised competition for building “iconic” structures that stand out for their size, shape, strength, and spectacular appearance.
According to data from the CTBUH (Council for Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat) database and also by studying the designs of the new high-rise buildings, it is realistic to expect the future generation of tall buildings to have more aerodynamic and curved shapes and forms.
Wind action analysis on tall buildings shows the significance of different geometric shapes in the design of future high-rise buildings. A large number of modern skyscrapers are designed to have the shape of geometric solids (such as polyhedra, cones, cylinders, spheres, and ellipsoids) and curved surfaces (toroid structures).
For example, The Burj Khalifa in Dubai, which rises 828 meters (2,717 ft), faces the big challenge of withstanding the high winds that frequent the area. Engineers have implemented a number of design features to address this issue. The building’s distinctive design, tapering towards the top, aids in reducing wind pressure on the structure. Furthermore, a central core offers critical structural support, while an external cladding system reduces the impact of wind forces.
High-Rise Building Elevation Design
The architectural elevation of a high-rise shows how the building will look from specific angles. The exterior look of a high-rise structure is what makes it unique, aesthetically pleasing, or awe-inspiring. The modern high-rise building elevation design follows the rules below :
- The architectural elevation design should be harmonious with a degree of unity. This can be achieved by continuing with a pattern and or forming a kind of grid.
- It is also important that the exterior design should not be boring to the onlookers and have some elements of variety within unity.
- Emphasizing the door or other important areas is important to draw the attention of the viewers to those parts.
- In architecture, proportions are essential, and designing an elevation is no exception. A disproportionate design can destroy a building’s prospects..
- Another crucial element is balance or synergy in the design. Symmetry is the most obvious strategy for achieving balance.
- An architectural elevation can’t be attractive without rhythm in the design.. Rhythm is like unity but with a different perspective.
Modern high-rise elevation design can be categorized into the following groups: Extruder, rotor, twister, toroid, and also free-form.
This type of building has the same cross-section throughout its height. An example would be a cylindrical or rectangular solid (Figure 1a). The picture shows a variety of extruder shapes:
Rotor-type buildings are conceptualized by rotating a line around a vertical axis. This type of architectural design has the following varieties in shape.
Typically, this type of building is shaped like a twisted solid, with the “twister” facade repeated throughout.
The free geometry building form consists of geometrically simple objects (lines, surfaces, and solids) that do not follow any particular sequence and are not included in other categories. There is a distinguishable sub-category in the free-form type called “slicer.” This includes buildings with curved facades.
The Challenges Faced in the Design of High-Rise Buildings
- Wind Loads and Structural Integrity
- Thermal Performance and Energy Efficiency:
- Material Selection and Installation
- Structural Movements and Building Settling
- Safety Considerations
Wind Loads and Structural Integrity
Dealing with wind loads is one of the most difficult aspects of high-rise facade construction. As structures reach record heights, they are subjected to increased wind forces, which can impose enormous strain on the facade.
For a solution, the wind behavior around the building is predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Engineers utilize this information to optimize the facade design, which includes features such as aerodynamic forms, wind baffles, and tuned mass dampers to reduce wind-induced stresses.
Thermal Performance and Energy Efficiency
Extreme temperature differences across levels are common in high-rise buildings, resulting in unequal heating or cooling. Maintaining a stable indoor atmosphere becomes a difficult undertaking, negatively compromising energy efficiency.
To improve the thermal performance of the facade, engineers use double or triple glazing, low-emissivity coatings, and modern insulation materials. Innovative sun-shading technologies and natural ventilation designs are being used to reduce energy use.
Material Selection and Installation
For their durability and simplicity of installation, lightweight yet strong materials like glass-fiber composites and high-strength aluminum alloys are preferred. The use of prefabrication and modular construction methods also helps to save on-site labor and increase productivity.
Structural Movements and Building Settling
Temperature variations, foundation settlement, and material creep can all cause structural movements and settling in tall buildings. To prevent cracking or leakage, the facade must tolerate these movements.
For a solution, expansion joints and movable connectors are used in flexible facade systems to provide regulated movement without affecting the building’s integrity. Furthermore, real-time monitoring devices are implemented to identify any abnormal motions and to evaluate the facade’s performance over time.
During construction, certain safety standards are followed, including the use of harnesses, safety nets, and guardrails. For routine cleaning and repairs, maintenance solutions such as building maintenance units (BMUs) and rope access techniques are used.